Special Issue "Chromosomal Evolution in Plants"

Martin and Hanna Schneeweiss (University of Vienna) are guest editors of a research topic in Frontiers in Plant Science entitled Chromosomal Evolution in Plants.

About this Research Topic

Plant karyotypes display a great diversity in chromosome number and morphology, as well as DNA amount and composition. Chromosomal evolution, one of the driving forces underlaying diversification and speciation in plants, is usually complex and employs various mechanisms. Although chromosome number and karyotype structure are still the most frequently recorded cytological characters, last decades have brought a range of new tools that allow for better insights into chromosomal and genome evolution in plants. The massively parallel sequencing technology (next-generation sequencing, NGS) has in last few years revolutionized nearly all biological disciplines. Genome skimming using NGS and whole-genome sequences opened up new horizons for modern evolutionary cytogenetics, or more accurately, cytogenomics. It therefore became obvious that plant evolutionary cytogenomics can benefit from whole-genome sequences, and comparative plant genomics can be associated to physical localization of DNA sequences on chromosomes, improving whole-genome and chromosome-level assemblies. Thus, we are now able to take full advantage of the modern approaches to finally tackle the long-standing questions in chromosome biology and genome evolution in any plant species group.

This Research Topic aims to bring together a collection of articles addressing important questions related to genome and chromosomal evolution across the green plant phylogeny including flowering plants, gymnosperms, ferns, bryophytes and algae. Studies presenting novel and exciting data on genome and chromosomal evolution, as well as new methodological tools, are welcome. The goal is to advance our understanding of plant karyotype evolution and its contribution to diversification and speciation, and allow for exchange of data, ideas, and hypotheses obtained making full advantage of new methodological approaches.

Specifically, we encourage submission of Original Research, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Methods, Perspectives, and Opinions covering the following topics:

- Reconstructing pathways of karyotype and genome evolution
- Paleogenomics and paleogenomes
- Polyploidy and post-polyploid genome diploidization
- Dysploid chromosomal changes
- Structure of plant chromosomes
- Impact of interphase chromosomes organization on genome evolution
- Repeatome and genome size evolution
- The role of chromosomal rearrangements in plant speciation

Keywords: Plant Karyotype, Plant Genome Evolution, Cytogenetics, Cytogenomics, Chromosomal Evolution