Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 70: 1134-1147.
The glucosinolate (GSL) profiles of four Limnanthaceae species, including the oil crop Limnanthes alba (meadowfoam), were investigated by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS/MS) analysis of desulfoGSLs after desulfation of native GSLs, supplemented by NMR of desulfated 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropylGSL and 3-methoxybenzylGSL. Leaves, roots, and seeds were investigated, providing an overview of biosynthetic capabilities in the genera Floerkea and Limnanthes. Methoxyl groups on benzylGSLs were in meta but not para positions; two 3,5-disubstituted benzylGSLs are tentatively proposed. 2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropylGSL was accompanied by an isomer that was not a previously reported GSL. The combined GSL profile of the family included GSLs derived from valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, and possibly methionine and tryptophan. Substituted indole GSLs and GSLs derived from chain-elongated amino acids or alanine were searched for but not detected. Hypothetic glycosides of GSLs were detected at low levels. Based on biochemical interpretation, we suggest biosynthetic schemes and gene families (CYP79C, GSOH) relevant for tailoring GSL profiles in Limnanthes crops.